- Mana combines authority, power, and prestige. Different people or objects within a group can have varying levels of Mana and this can come from ancestors, age within families and skills/contributions made to a certain group. Mana is somewhat supernatural and people or things with high levels of mana are generally leaders or prized possessions within communities. Mana as part of Tikanga Maori would be applied to art and design through stories the artist has to communicate and the lifestyle they lived. Maori people used carvings as a way to tell stories and a individuals Mana would play a large contribution to the stories they had to tell and their motive behind the artwork they were creating. Objects that held strong Mana were prized and held great importance to their owners often because of stories associated with them or journeys they had undertaken.2. Intellectual property and copyright laws are insufficient to address the misuse of Taonga Work as they do not cover the protection of Kaitiaki relationship with Taonga Works. The crown have argued that New Zealand IP laws sufficiently cover Maori interest and allowing Maori special rights would result in others restrained innovation and could change access to knowledge which could inspire the creation of new work. Taonga Works involve Matauranga Maori and Tikanga Maori where New Zealand copyright and IP laws don’t at all which is extremely evident when work is being used in a culturally insensitive or offensive manner.
Tangata Whenua. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, Aroha Harris
Kawharu, H. (1989). The Treaty of Waitangi translated from Māori into modern English with notes
Taonga Works and Intellectual Property (2011) in Ko Aotearoa Tēnei – A Report into Claims Concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Māori Culture and Identity
Walker, R. (1990). Tauiwi.
The piece of art I have chosen is a carved haumi and dates back to the 1500’s. This haumi was used to protect the canoe prow from incoming waves and was discovered in Waitore in 1975. During the 1500’s due to colonisation and the influx of different cultural influence, it is clear to see who created certain artworks and who each piece was influenced by through examination of carving techniques. By this time the East Polynesian influence on carving had evolved and Maori art was becoming identifiable with its spiral forms and bands of lines creating a distinctive curvilinear style. A small slightly curved chisel would have been used to create this piece. The decoration of a large piece such as this communicates the transitions Maori people were undertaking. The carvings tell stories and show interesting outside influence but also forms similar the late Maori era.
Tangata Whenua. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, Aroha Anderson
This image of a pare (lintel) carved from wood which was discovered between Kaitaia and Ahipara. It embodies Atholl Anderson’s first chapter proving all the different influences and techniques from different people and cultures around the pacific have come together to influence the creation of this one wood carving. The early Maori artwork made from local wood contains similarities to Easter Island figurines, New Zealand chevroned amulets and contains central east Polynesian associations. Because of it’s large differences to traditional Maori art some people even thought it to be artwork from Melanesio-Polynesians who occupied that are of New Zealand in the earth tenth century. Throughout chapter One of Tangata Whenua the timeline of who arrived in NZ and other islands of the pacific is discussed and this early carving provides evidence of several different techniques , cultural influence and similarities to Pacific art involved. The carving was discovered in 1920 and but we are yet to know when it was created.
Tangata Whenua. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, Aroha Harris
Mead, Hirini Moko. “Chapter 2: Ngā Pūtake o te Tikanga – Underlying Principles And Values”. Tikanga Māori: Living By Māori Values. Aotearoa: Huia Publishers, 2003.
When it comes to advertising, women are treated purely as an object to sexualise and sell a product. Advertisements around the world often show women naked, vulnerable or with their legs spread wide open. Women are more than objects and should be portrayed as real people with equal rights to men in every aspect of life. For Assessment 3 I have been focusing on the objectification of women in Fashion Advertising. Gathering evidence of the double standards in the fashion advertising world made it easy and intriguing creating my form of visual activism.
For my visual piece, I have created an A3 poster showing images I found from fashion advertisements objectifying women. The caption over the image states WOMEN > OBJECTS. Minimal words are used so that the viewer of the poster can look at the collaged pictures and make up their own mind about what is going on. This poster works in a similar effect to signs in protests such as OWS as mentioned in ‘How to See the World’, “These signs were not shown in a gallery, but were looked at by people who may not even have been aware of such spaces” (Mirzoeff, 708).
It is shocking when all of these images are together how common it is for women to be objectified and sexualised to increase sales of a product. These images are allowed to be shown publicly meaning our children, younger siblings and grandparents will be exposed to these also. This can have a negative effect on the way women view themselves and the way men view the women around them. Many of the images show men in suits looking strong and powerful and women in no more than their underwear looking sick and frail. This gives the wrong idea to the viewer that women are much below men and that men can always overpower women. This was depicted perfectly in the short clip showing 8-year-old children voicing what they saw in advertisements showing men vs. women (Youtube).
When interviewed Tom Ford said, “you can’t show male nudity in our culture in the way you can show female nudity. We’re very comfortable as a culture exploiting women, but not men. But I don’t think of it as exploitation” (Independent, 2015). This comment sums up the blasé connotations associated with sexism. The designer went on to say “He often thinks about feminism” but feminism is all about equality and his statement just confirmed inequality. Ford displays himself and our culture saying that this problem is not a problem at all. His statements are ironic and laughable.
Sexism and the objectification of women is a serious world issue and needs to be recognised and solved immediately.
I have decided to gather as many images of women being objectified in fashion advertisements and collage them all together to create a poster to display in public. I found this interview with Tom Ford speaking about how he really considers feminism etc. when designing and choosing advertisements. This is contrary to what he publicly posts and the irony in this interview is laughable. I will consider using some of his quotes in the collage also.
All of these articles show the objectification of women in advertisements. Similarly to the Madonna Badger video I want to gather images from the most objectifying advertisements and create a collage to place in a public area. All of the images together will create a true sense of how women are portrayed and how wrong this is. I found similar videos of women speaking over advertisements in disgrace with what the image show and this was another creative example of visual activism against this world issue. In reading the interview with Tom Ford the irony withing his statements became laughable. He says “you can’t show male nudity in our culture in the way you can show female nudity. We’re very comfortable as a culture exploiting women, but not men. But I don’t think of it as exploitation.” I don’t think he really thought this statement through as this is sexist and proves the double standards his images portray. Just because it’s a common theme it does not mean it is right. His ability to say this publicly and portray what he does in his advertisements confuses me. These quotes would be an interesting addition to my collage image to show irony and our societies ability to brush these issues off like it’s acceptable.
When watching the movie, ‘Picture Me’ (2009) it was really interesting to learn about the way the models themselves are treated. At one point a woman speaks about being 16 and going to a shoot and being asked to get naked which she did. The photographer then got naked also and was getting the model to touch him inappropriately. The model recalled going home and crying to her boyfriend and refusing to shoot with this photographer ever again. This shows how these images turn out the way they do. This is how the fashion industry treats young women and this proves the inequality in fashion.